1. In the food processing and sugar industry, PAM can be used for the purification of various meat, fruit and vegetable washing water and the clarification of fruit wine and beer. PAM is used as a flocculant and modified with modified starch to increase the amount of water binding. It is prepared with 15 parts of PAM and 85 parts of starch. For example, suspend 100kg of potato starch in 15Ot water (55℃), mix with 0.5kgNaCo, 0.3kgNaOH, stir at 50℃ for 2h, then filter out the starch, wash with water, adjust the pH to 6.5, filter and dry , And finally 20kg of PAM is reacted to make the desired product. In the sugar industry, syrup clarification treatment must use good performance flocculant, the type of flocculant and the preparation and use method are very important. Products using polymer polyacrylamide (with a degree of hydrolysis of 25% to 30%) are more suitable for sugar mill applications. The use of advanced cane juice clarification technology, high-efficiency polyacrylamide flocculant to remove as much non-sugar content as possible, thereby improving the quality of clear juice. In addition, it can also be used to reduce the formation of fouling in sugar refining equipment. Now my country has produced a polyacrylamide flocculant for sugar industry with a relative molecular mass of 200×10* and a dosage of 2mg/L, which can increase the sedimentation rate by 20 times.
2. Building materials industry, in the building materials industry, it can be used to increase the production capacity of the settlement tank and the filterability of cement in the process of wet cement manufacturing, and to improve the uniformity of kiln materials. It can improve the retention rate of fibers and additives in insulation boards based on inorganic materials and wood fibers.
It can be added to the composite formula of dry wall tape to bond cement to improve construction quality.
3. In the construction industry, it is used as an adhesive for wallboard (paper) and asbestos products. PAM gel can be used for caulking, repairing and plugging leaks in buildings. Filling cement with PAM shows excellent bonding and adhesion in a wide range of temperature and relative humidity.
4- In the electroplating industry, adding PAM in the electroplating solution can homogenize the metal precipitation and make the coating brighter. PAM can be used as a protective colloid to improve emulsion stability.
5. In the textile, printing and dyeing industry, PAM is used as a sizing agent and fabric finishing agent, and can also form an anti-fungal protective layer on the surface of the fabric. It can be used as a warp sizing agent for polyester, cotton fabrics and other fibers and an anti-wrinkle agent for cotton fabrics. Preparing slurry to replace the sizing of grain manufacturing can save a lot of grain. With its strong moisture absorption characteristics, it can reduce the thread breakage rate during spinning. Improve the hydrophilicity of synthetic fibers. When used as a pigment printing auxiliary, it has high fastness and brightness, and can also be used as a leveling agent.
6. Fluid transportation, one of the most promising applications of acrylamide polymers is to reduce the hydraulic resistance of turbulence. This effect has a wide range of applications, such as increasing the coverage of firefighting water guns; reducing pipeline resistance in fluid transportation; coating on the surface of ships or submarines, which can reduce sailing resistance and increase shipping speed; It can improve coal slurry transportation conditions in coal liquid transportation,
It can also be used for high-speed suction of suspended water and emulsions.
7. Used as a water-absorbent resin, super-absorbent polymer is a new type of functional polymer material developed in the mid-1970s and has been widely used in industry and daily life. Most of these polymers are cross-linked acrylic copolymers of acrylic acid metal salt and acrylamide or other monomers such as 2-acrylamide 2-methyl propane sulfonic acid. These gels have high strength, and the water absorption capacity can reach more than 2000 times. Using light oil as the continuous phase, Span -60 as the suspension stabilizer, bisacrylamide as the cross-linking agent, and persulfate as the main initiator, the acrylate-acrylamide copolymerization cross-linking type was synthesized by the inverse suspension polymerization method.性polymer. The product is in the form of microspheres with an average particle size of less than 40um. The average particle size and water absorption of the product are affected by the stirring speed, the amount of suspension stabilizer, and theThe influence of factors such as the amount of coupling agent. The water absorption rate of the product is about 300 times.
8. For water and soil conservation, the United States has successfully used PAM as a soil structure forming agent more than 20 years ago. The application of a small amount of copolymer with a relative molecular mass greater than or equal to 50x10* can significantly improve soil resistance to wind and water erosion. Traditional reinforcing agents (such as asphalt, etc.) are more effective.
Powdered PAM is water-soluble, and can diffuse with water during rainfall and evenly penetrate into the pores of the soil to become saturated. Due to the flocculating nature of PAM, when encountering soil particles suspended in rainwater, one component can adsorb multiple soil particles, and one soil particle can also be adsorbed by multiple component molecules to produce large flocculent clusters. These flocculent clusters reduce the splashing force of raindrops on the soil surface, while the action of molecular clusters reduces the starting force of particles. The viscosity of molecular clusters also reduces fluid resistance, increases corrosion resistance, and strengthens the soil particles. The soil surface is stable due to the interaction of the soil, and its water, soil and fertilizer conservation effects are very obvious, and it plays a positive role in the control of soil erosion. Because the hydrolysate of PAM (HPAM) can granulate the soil, improve air circulation, water permeability and water retention, it can be used as a soil conditioner, water and soil loss agent, as well as a plugging agent and an antifreeze agent for fruit trees. And water breathing resin, etc.
9. Water-sensitive rubber, one of the characteristics of polyacrylamide hydrogel is that the solubility in water is at a certain critical temperature, and with small changes in temperature, there will be drastic mutations, and the volume change can reach dozens of times to hundreds of times. Times, the use of this property can be used for the extraction of certain organic or biological substances without the use of high temperatures. Polyacrylamide hydrogels can also be used for controlled release of drugs and entrapment of enzymes, protein electrophoresis, artificial organ materials, contact spectacle lenses, gel explosives, chromatography column packing, etc.
10. Medicine. In the medical field, homopolymer gels are used as carriers for non-thrombin progranulation agents and drugs. It is reported in the literature that using PAM with a particle size of less than 0.3mm to carry drugs after treating the wound can absorb foreign bodies and pus from the wound and release the drug to achieve the purpose of treatment, Polyacrylamide uses.
11. In the field of biochemistry, cross-linked and partially hydrolyzed PAM can be used in the field of biochemistry. PAM with a particle size of hundreds of microns to tens of microns can be used for color-harmonic fillers (such as gel chromatography column fillers), which can effectively separate spherical proteins such as milk ball, white play, y ball play, crystal, and cytochrome, and can Further desalination and concentration of protein. In 1990, Japanese patent literature reported the use of PAM to selectively adsorb water and low molecular weight proteins from protein mixtures, and the remaining high molecular weight proteins were further concentrated. PAM resin can be made into microspheres with high mechanical strength and can be used as a high-performance chromatograph filler. Functionalized PAM can be used as a carrier for immobilized enzymes and a catalyst for chemical reactions for different chemical catalytic reactions. In agriculture, PAM can be used as an outer coating material for fertilizers and sterilization. Adding PAM to the water stream can reduce the water resistance and make the fire-fighting water spray gun spray farther. It can be used for water-powered ships and can increase the sailing speed. As a coating, PAM can be used for surface finishing of artificial leather. In addition, PAM can still be used as a sand binder in metal casting, a temporary adhesive in the ceramic industry, a metal anti-rust protective film, a chemical fertilizer agglomeration agent, and a stabilizer in inks, coatings, drugs, and latex paints. PAM can be used as a protective layer for inorganic granular fertilizers, allowing fungicides and herbicides to adhere to the surface of the granules. It can also be used as a microcapsule packaging material for sustained-release drugs.