1. Types and protection of acrylamide poisoning Clinically, acrylamide poisoning is often divided into subacute and chronic. Subacute poisoning: The concentration or dose of exposure to acrylamide is high, and the time from exposure to onset-generally not more than two months. The symptoms and signs of clinical manifestations are more concentrated on the skin, nervous system and digestive tract, with the nervous system being the most prominent. The damage to the nervous system includes both the central nerve and the peripheral nerve, but the damage to the central nerve is more prominent, especially ataxia. Its clinical manifestations are eye-level tremor and weakened muscle tone. The specific manifestation is that the systemic symptoms can appear a few days after exposure to high concentrations or high doses of acrylamide. First, the body is weak, and then there is anorexia, then the numbness of the hind limbs, unstable walking, unsteady holding, easy to fall and weakness Climb up. As the condition evolves, there may be changes in the feeling of pain, warmth, and touch, but it is not obvious. Local skin can see changes such as redness, paleness, peeling, keratinization, and proliferation. Electromyography showed peripheral neuropathy, motor conduction speed slowed down; blood routine, cerebrospinal fluid, immunoglobulin, etc. were not changed. Subacute poisoning can be cured by proper treatment, and the course of disease can be as long as one year or more.
Chronic poisoning: The clinical manifestations of chronic poisoning are common with general weakness, anorexia, tingling of the limbs, hand peeling, and excessive sweating; the signs show weakened knee reflex, biceps reflex, and triceps reflex. Disappearance, pain, tactile sensation, glove, sock-like sensation; erythema, skin peeling, paralysis, dizziness, severe dysfunction of movement, limbs unable to stand unstable. EMG shows peripheral neuropathy.
First aid measures: If this chemical touches the eyes and skin, rinse immediately with plenty of water; if a large amount of people inhale, immediately remove the site to fresh air, if necessary, give artificial respiration; if acrylamide is swallowed, it must be taken Large amounts of water, induce vomiting, gastric lavage; but those who do not save personnel, should not induce vomiting, should be sent to the hospital for treatment immediately. Protective measures: Strengthen preventive measures in the production process, equipment should be sealed, ventilation of the plant should be strengthened, and the concentration should be controlled below the allowable line. The operator should wear protective work clothes to prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact; wear protective glasses to prevent eye contact. Work clothes should be replaced daily if they are splashed or contaminated. Permeable work clothes should be removed immediately if they become wet or contaminated. The production site shall be equipped with safety signal indicators.
2. The safety of acrylamide
The safest use of acrylamide is to prevent direct contact. Solid objects can come into contact with the skin and inhale dust and vapor into the human body, especially when emptying the packaging ellipse and packaging bags. The unloading place must be equipped with ventilation facilities, and use gas masks and protective clothing to protect workers. Users in the laboratory must wear neoprene gloves and operate in a fume hood. Solid acrylamide can produce violent polymerization and explode when it is heated by melting or in contact with oxidant.
Solid acrylamide can be contained in a metal drum with polypropylene lining, and the storage place must be kept clean and dry. Temperature-generally maintained between 10 ~ 25C, no more than 50C, and must be equipped with clearing facilities, in order to deal with the appearance of damage in a timely manner. Articles containing contaminated impurities must be buried immediately. The 50% acrylamide solution must be stored between 15.5 ~ 38C, and the maximum temperature should not exceed 49. The temperature should not be too low, because acrylamide will precipitate out of the crystal below 14. 5C, and separate from the polymerization inhibitor; temperature exceeds 50C, the polymerization speed becomes faster. Ion and oxygen (saturated with air) must be added to the monomer as a polymerization inhibitor, and the content and pH of the polymerization inhibitor in the inventory should be checked regularly. The storage period of the monomer should not exceed 6 months. When it is necessary to precipitate and re-dissolve the solution, warm water must be added, but the water temperature must not exceed 50C. A large amount of spilled acrylamide can be sent to the wastewater treatment station for treatment. A small amount of acrylamide must be polymerized with a redox initiator. The solid waste containing acrylamide should be buried to prevent pollution.